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Test Model proposal of Sarracenia purpurea for Monkeypox
In 1861, Dr. Herbert Chalmer Miles, a British surgeon stationed in Canada, became aware of an herbal cure for smallpox and relayed the cure back to medical authorities in London. Smallpox is similar enough to monkeypox that the cure reported by Dr. Miles for smallpox should also be effective for monkeypox. The cure was never adopted by the medical establishment that promoted smallpox vaccines.
Today, following what I describe as the COVID-19 "Vaxdemic," the world is faced with a monkeypox fear campaign to trick and force the public into taking more dangerous vaccines in a global depopulation effort. On July 23, 2022, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director of the World Health Organization, declared that a "monkeypox outbreak represents a public health emergency of international concern." On August 4, 2022, Xavier Becerra, the Secretary of Health and Human Services of the United States, followed the lead of the self-appointed World Health Organization and declared a "Public Health Emergency." As with the deadly COVID-19 vaccines, an "emergency" status will allow the government to approve monkeypox vaccines without first exposing any long-term deadly effects of the vaccines with testing.
We are in the midst of an emergency, but the emergency is the deadly nature of the vaccines, not the underlying excuses and lies to force and trick vaccines onto the public. If you understand the truth of this and want to do something about it, keep reading.
COVID-19 vaccines of 2020-2022 have caused the deaths of millions. The vaccines cure and prevent absolutely nothing. They are pure poison. The medical establishment has lost all credibility. They are not an authority to me, nor my peers. I hope that many in the medical establishment come to understand that their peers are on a jury. I see no point in arguing with them or referencing the truth in this proposal. It is a waste of time to me. I prefer to do something about the problem.
There is another way. True cures for diseases like smallpox, monkeypox, and countless other diseases, have been known to exist for centuries. I have several time proposed a simple testing method to unlock the true cures for disease. I will once again make the case with monkeypox and Sarracenia purpurea.
I believe that it is necessary, in the short term, to bypass the government and medical establishment to cure diseases. The establishment is corrupt beyond all hope of correction in the foreseeable future. People are beginning to understand the problem, but don't know what to do about it, other than vote. The public has been programmed by mass media and social media to rely on government, complain about one side of government, then wait to vote for the other side. It is a form of mind control that keeps the public weak no matter how much evil is done by government over a period of decades where both parties have had the power to address the problems.
As for disease, I say just start anew with medicine on a blank piece of paper. Hopefully someone will pay attention to me this time. I believe the deaths of many millions of people could be prevented if an actual true "philanthropist" exists anywhere in this world who is willing to knock this monkeypox disease out in short order and expose this method to the world.
The scientific method to cure monkeypox appears to be simple, achievable, and profitable. You must simply collect the roots of multiple species of the Sarracenia genus, make extracts of the roots, conduct a complete chemical analysis of the extracts, and regress the effective concentrations of Sarracenia on monkeypox against the concentrations of the individual chemical constituents of the extracts in order to identify what compound or synergistic combination of compounds causes the anti-pox effects.
I have made a review of the writings of Dr. Miles on S. purpurea on the Native American cure for smallpox.
I have also reviewed a 2012 study by researchers at Arizona State University where they confirm that S. purpurea is very effective against smallpox and monkeypox.
The 2018 Ph.D thesis of Ferris Lawrence-Mackey at University College London provides an important background for the reports of Dr. Miles and S. Purpurea.
SARRANCENIA PURPUREA - NATIVE AMERICAN REMEDY FOR SMALLPOX
Dr. Herbert Chalmers Miles, a medical officer of the 10th Brigade Royal Artillery of Britain, while stationed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, wrote a letter to Epidemiological Society of London in 1861 to report that in the winter of 1860-1861, a vessel had landed near Halifax with some people aboard who were affected with smallpox. (1). The smallpox subsequently spread in Halifax. The Mi'kmaq, an Indigenous people of Nova Scotia, turned to an elderly woman who they regarded as the doctor of their people. They believed her to be a superior doctor to the white doctors, who they regarded as "no good." (2)
The Native American "doctress" provided a cure for smallpox derived from the root of Sarracenia purpurea, or purple pitcher plant. Dr. Miles reported that the Mi'kmaq found it to be a successful cure in every instance and consumed it regularly thereafter as a preventative measure. The letter from Dr. Miles was read before the Epidemiological Society of London on November 4, 1861. (3) According to Farrah Lawrence-Mackey, in her 2018 doctoral dissertation at the University of London: "No other presentation that year received such lengthy thanks from the member." (4)
Dr. Miles followed up on his letter to London with a report published in the Lancet on October 1862, titled The Employment of the Sarracenia purpurea, or Indian Pitcher Plant, as a Remedy for Small-pox. He summarized the medical application of Sarracenia purpurea as he knew it. He relayed a successful case study from Dr. Jas. H. Richardson, of Toronto. (5) Dr. Miles reported in the Lancet that the President of the Epidemiological Society of London, Dr. Babington, had requested Sarracenia purpurea to be used for trails at the "Small-pox Hospital" in London, and that the trials were to be led by Dr. James Furness Marson. He said he had already sent a considerable amount of dried S. Purpurea root to London and was planning to send more. (6). Dr. Miles trusted a pharmaceutical firm, Savory and Moore, to provide appropriately prepared samples in London for testing of smallpox. (7). It is unclear if Savory and Moore prepared the S. Purpurea extracts properly. The roots alone were determined to have the medicinal qualities, not the leaves. Dr. Miles made clear instructions that the preparation of the S. purpurea medicine should only use the roots. (8)
During the time of Dr. Miles reports to London on S. purpurea, others in Halifax began marketing a cure they said was an "Indian cure" based on the treatment of the Native American doctress. Dr. Miles believed them to be providing a product that was intentionally ineffective. "Miles believed the two men were patent medicine sellers, hawking an unknown and ineffective remedy that they wished to associate with his work." The term "patent" is taken from the secretive nature of the ingredients. The "Indian cure" would be sold at an expensive price by "pharmaceutical company, Savory and Moore." (9).
In December 1862, another report of Dr. Miles was published in Lancet, Cases of Small-pox Treated by the Sarracenia Purpurea.
In this report, Dr. Miles expressed annoyance that so much time had elapsed since his first report of a cure for smallpox. (10). In the absence of fair trials in London, he relayed four successful case studies of treatments of smallpox with S. purpurea from Mr. S. K. Burch. (11)
Dr. Marson, of the Smallpox Hospital in London, ultimately did conduct trials with S. purpurea.
Dr. Marson had a serious conflict of interest in testing S. purpurea. Ferris Lawrence-Mackey at University College London (2018) laid out the conflict of interest. A compulsory vaccination act had been passed in 1853, requiring that all infants born in England and Wales had to be vaccinated, under penalty for their parents of fines and jail. Dr. Marson was a staunch advocate for mandatory smallpox vaccinations. The act was extremely unpopular and regarded as an attack on personal liberties. Protests were held against the compulsory vaccinations. By 1861, the compulsory smallpox vaccine act had met with such widespread opposition that it had become unenforceable.
During the period of 1862-1863, an announcement of a successful treatment alternative to smallpox than vaccines, would have crippled the vaccine establishment. (12).
Dr. Marson, the smallpox vaccine advocate, conducted his trials of S. purpurea and reported that the use made no difference. 13 of 15 of his smallpox patients that he treated with S. purpurea died. (13). His results seem at extreme odds with the results of doctors in Nova Scotia.
SARRANCENIA PURPUREA - ARIZONA STATE STUDY.
Review of In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox, Arndt et al, 2012:
This study tested the effectiveness of the herbs Sarracenia purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus, Echinacea angustifolia, and Coriolus versicolor on RK-13 (rabbit kidney) cells and HeLa (Henrietta Lacks cancer) cells infected with viruses in the Poxviridae family: Vaccinia virus (VACV), Monkeypox virus (MPXV), and Variola virus (Smallpox) (VARV). (Vaccinia virus has been associated with both cowpox and horsepox, and may have been a result of laboratories culturing viruses in this family for testing purposes). (14)
The study authors plainly concluded: "Our data supports that extracts of S. purpurea effectively inhibit the replication of VACV, MPXV and VARV in vitro. This activity toward Orthopoxviruses is consistent with the historical reports of S. purpurea as a therapy against smallpox infections." (15)
The further stated that S. purpurea had the best results of the herbs tested, and that future research should involve efforts to identify the anti-poxvirus compounds. (16) That's exactly what I propose: to identify the anti-pox compounds with a simple mathematical method that is apparently forbidden by the medical establishment: regression analysis of the individual compounds against the effective concentrations of an extract.
The study also tested Sarracenia purpurea on viruses outside the Poxviridae family, to see if the anti-virus qualities extended to other viruses. They tested: Adenovirus Type 5 (Adeno), vesicular stomatitis virus, Indiana strain (VSV), mouse hepatitis virus A59 (MHV), reovirus Type 3, Dearing strain (Reo), and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The authors reported that S. purpurea was not effective against these non-Poxviridae viruses. (17)
In this study, the whole plant of Sarracenia purpurea was grown in a greenhouse, ground in a blender, mixed with ethanol and distilled water, and pressed into a solution used for testing. (18) The use of the whole plant in this study is against the advice of Dr. Miles in 1862, but if there was sufficient quantity of the root, it would likely still have good results. A complete chemical analysis of both the leaf and root materials should be performed beforehand in the test model that I propose. Leaf and root extracts can be tested separately.
The whole plant of S. purpurea had great results against vaccinia virus in RK-13 cells. The authors wrote: "S. purpurea treatment resulted in a dramatic decrease in VACV replication, when compared to the untreated cells . A single treatment of S. purpurea, caused a 100–1000 fold reduction in VACV replication throughout the course of the infection, however some viral replication was still observed. In cells treated with fresh extract every six hours, a 10,000-fold decrease in VACV replication was observed. Multiple treatments with S. purpurea completely abolished VACV replication since titers did not increase over the course of the infection." (19)
The authors concluded that s purpurea "S. purpurea may be inhibiting virus replication early in the replication cycle prior to the induction of CPE (cytopathic effect). (20). The term "cytopathic effect" refers to structural changes in host cells that are caused by viral invasion.
I can't think of a better result for S. purpurea than to stop the monkeypox virus from replicating and causing harm to cells. The in vitro results match up very well against the reports from Nova Scotia where the poxes dried up. The call to test S. purpurea in the manner I have proposed is very well established by both the historical use of the herb and the testing in vitro results at Arizona State. I also suggest testing the rest of the Sarracenia genus, as I will explain.
The poor results of pro-vaccination Dr. Marson in London appear to be a result of incompetence or sabotage.
PROPOSED TEST METHOD
Regression Analysis. As I have previously written, the current test models used by the scientific community are extremely weak and unsatisfactory. To understand the effects of individual compounds in S. purpurea on monkeypox, a complete chemical analysis of Sarracenia extracts should be performed beforehand. The effective concentrations of extracts of multiple and varying Sarracenia extracts should next be determined. The effects of the individual chemical constituents on the effective concentrations can be determined by multiple linear regression. It's that simple. This method is opposed to testing an entire extract without knowing the chemical constituents, or testing random chemical compounds derived from the plant.
The main difference that I propose to test Sarracenia as compared to the accepted medical standard of testing is to use correct mathematical theory. I believe the correct use of mathematical theory has been blocked by the medical industry because it is a far more powerful and effective method of analysis to find cures in an affordable and fast manner than what they use. Of course that sounds cynical, but the truth is easy enough to determine. One thing about statistical theory is that you can test it.
I have made a more complete discussion of the methodology of multiple linear regression in a proposal for the genus of Artemisia. (21).
PLANTS TO TEST
I propose collected and testing samples from the entire Sarracenia genus.
First, regression analysis requires variance of chemical properties in extracts of Sarracenia. Second, other species in the Sarracenia may have substantial and harvestable quantities of anti-pox active compounds in addition to S. purpurea. These species should be identified, protected from over-harvesting, and cultivated. Third, it is possible that another species in the Sarracenia genus than S. purpurea may be the best anti-pox herb. There is no way to know without testing. The more testing is done, the more is known. All of the information that is acquired in this test method will sum. Testing can be reproduced and done in multiple locations around the world, then added to a common database for regression analysis.
According to Makoto Honda, there are around 8 species of Sarracenia distributed across North America: S. alata, S. psittacina S. rubra S. minor S. leucophylla S. flava S. oreophila, and S. purpurea. (22) Extracts of all 8 species should be prepared and tested against cells infected with monkeypox. In vivo testing can be done in the same manner, if necessary.
(1). Miles, H. Chaulmers. "On an Indian Remedy for Small-Pox." Lancet, November 4, 1861. LINK
Early in the last winter a small coasting vessel landed a portion of her crew at an extreme sea-board village, a few miles from Halifax. The persons landed were sick with small-pox, and the disease soon spread, first among the cottages with whom the fishermen mixed, and subsequently amongst those from the capital who resorted to the village for the purpose of trade. Through the early weeks of spring, rumour constantly asserted that vast numbers of the seafaring population were attacked with the complaint; but it was not until March that the large civil hospital of Halifax, by the number of its weekly admissions for variola, began to corroborate rumor, and to authenticate the the justice of the public anxiety.
(2) Miles, H. Chaulmers. "On an Indian Remedy for Small-Pox." Lancet, November 4, 1861. LINK
One of the Indian race, it was asserted, had come into the disease-stricken camp, possessed of a preparation which had the extraordinary power of curing some kind of cases that had hitherto proved so fatal. This remedy was believe by the Indians to be so efficacious that, if given to them when attacked with small-pox, they looked forward with confidence to a speedy and effectual cure. An old, weird Indian woman was the fortunate possessor of the remedy in question. She had always been known as the doctress of her tribe, and had enjoyed celebrity for many years in consequences of her reputed knowledge of medicine and wonderful acquaintance with the herbs and roots of the woods. So well established was her fame amongst the Indians, that, when sick, they resorted to her rather than to white doctors, who they regarded as "no good."
(3). Miles, H. Chaulmer. "The Employment of the Sarracenia Purpurea , or Indian pitcher plant, as a remedy for small-pox." Lancet, October 18, 1862. LINK
A PAPER written by me, introducing to the notice of the profession an "Indian Remedy for Small-Pox," was read to the Epidemiological Society of London on Nov. 4th, 1861, (an abstract of it was published in THE LANCET of Dec. 7th of that year). On account of the season of the year (mid-winter) I was unable to comply with the Epidemiological Society’s request to send an additional quantity of the root; and on my being ordered from Nova Scotia to Canada, I found that the difficulty in obtaining it was materially increased. Hence the delay in this matter, and the impossibility, up to the present date, of giving the medicine a full and satisfactory trial.
(4). Lawrence-Mackey, Ferris, 2018. "Medical Appropriation in the ‘Red’ Atlantic: Translating a Mi’kmaq smallpox cure in the mid-nineteenth century." PhD thesis, University College London. LINK
"Marson was an avid supporter of compulsory vaccination which was coming under direct attack from opponents in both the working and middle classes in England during the period. The compulsory vaccination act in 1853 decreed all infants born in England and Wales must be vaccinated or their parents could face fines and even jail time. The act was regarded as obstructing liberty and individualism, and as a direct threat to the bodies of children and adults, especially amongst the working class.268 Principle concerns over vaccination rested on the possibility that arm to arm vaccination could transfer other diseases between individuals as well as a fear that matter from cows could cause individuals to suffer bovine illnesses, and that the act of placing animal matter into human bodies was unchristian. In 1861 the ability of medical officers and vaccinators to enforce the provisions of the Act were almost non-existent with the strength of opposition only growing. The Sarracenia was therefore framed by those that supported vaccination in opposition to it rather than as a curative to be taken in conjunction with it. If the medical establishment judged the Sarracenia as efficient in curing or preventing smallpox they would only be adding fuel to the anti-vaccination fire, with an approved alternative available that did not come with the same concerns of contamination, unchristian acts and suppression of individual freedom."
(5). Miles, H. Chaulmer. "The Employment of the Sarracenia Purpurea , or Indian pitcher plant, as a remedy for small-pox." Lancet, October 18, 1862. LINK
Concerning this case, Dr. Richardson notes: " On the whole, 1 must conclude that the effect produced by the sarracenia was most satisfactory and well marked. The disease continued very severe until iG was administered, and became entirely changed in its severity after the administration of the third dose, the effect being due to ic alone, as no other medicine was given after it was commenced. I am forced to the conclusion that the secondary fever was much controlled by it, and that desir--cation took place much more rapidly than would have occurred otherwise. I shall now ive it a more early trial, and have everv confidence in iha beneficial efffect " n a scientific point of view, the greatest interest ’will undoubterlly attach to those cases of natural, unmodified smallpox in which the remedy is used, and I trust before long that many intelligent observers in all parts of the world may have it in their power to obtain the root, and give it as ample a trial as their opportunities will permit
(6). Miles, H. Chaulmer. "The Employment of the Sarracenia Purpurea , or Indian pitcher plant, as a remedy for small-pox." Lancet, October 18, 1862. LINK
The learned and distinguished President of the Epidemiological Society, Dr. Babington, assures me that, on receipt of the root in sufficient quantity, Mr. Marson, of the Small-pox Hospital, has determined to afford it a thoroughly satisfactory trial ; and I hope that other of my professional brethren in civil life, with similar wide opportunities for collecting authentic data, will likewise be able to test its " medical virtues" in a large number of cases.
(7). Miles, H. Chaulmer. "The Employment of the Sarracenia Purpurea , or Indian pitcher plant, as a remedy for small-pox." Lancet, October 18, 1862. LINK
P.S.-Considerable quantities of the dried root of the Sarracenia purpurea have either been or are about to be shipped by my direction from Canada and the States, consigned to Messrs. Savory and Moore, of London. I have requested this firm to issue, free, a small quantity to any of the medical societies of the metropolis who may wish to apply for it. The Sarracenia purpurea will (for a very long time) only be obtainable (genuine) in England at Messrs. Savory and Moore’s; and this firm, I apprehend, will retail it just at the price per lb. which will cover the expenses incurred.* * St. Helens, Montreal, C.E., Aug. 25th, 1862.
(8). Miles, H. Chaulmer. "The Employment of the Sarracenia Purpurea , or Indian pitcher plant, as a remedy for small-pox." Lancet, October 18, 1862. LINK
The root, when fresh gathered, should be at once slowly and thoroughly dried, the thin fibres around it pared away, and the firm solid root alone used. The method of making the decoction is to slice from one or two ounces of the dried root into thin pieces, place them in an earthen pot, add a quart of cold water, and permit the liquid to simmer gently over a steady fire for two or three hours, so as to lose one fourth of its weight.
(9). Lawrence-Mackey, Ferris, 2018. "Medical Appropriation in the ‘Red’ Atlantic: Translating a Mi’kmaq smallpox cure in the mid-nineteenth century." PhD thesis, University College London. LINK
Miles wrote that Morris, the resident physician of the Halifax Visiting Dispensary, and his compatriot John Thomas Lane, an ex-customs official and patent remedy seller, had been selling a remedy that they claimed was of Mi’kmaq origin in Halifax and it was only after Miles’ publication that they indicated that this was the Sarracenia. Miles believed the two men were patent medicine sellers, hawking an unknown and ineffective remedy that they wished to associate with his work. Patent medicine sellers’ practice depended on the sale of remedies whose contents remained undisclosed, and often guarded secrets, for the practical concern that if patients could obtain the ingredients themselves they would not need to purchase patent remedies. This is not to say that Miles was unconcerned with economic gain. Miles indicated within his account of the Sarracenia that it would be available from the pharmaceutical company, Savory and Moore. The price of the plant was a source of complaint.
(10). Miles, H. Chaulmer. "Cases of small-pox treated by the Sarracenia purpurea." Lancent, December 8, 1862. LINK.
TOWARDS the conclusion of my paper " On the Employment of the Sarracenia Purpurea as a Remedy for Small-pox" (which was recently published in THE LANCET, with the courteous sanction of the Director-General of the Army Medical Department), I ventured to express an earnest hope that any of my professional brethren in civil life who possessed wide opportunities for collecting authentic data, would test the efficacy of the root in as large a number of cases as their practice permitted. It must have been obvious to everyone who favoured the monograph with perusal, that my efforts were directed towards placing before the profession, succinctly and without reserve, each item of information which I was able to gather
concerning the medicinal action of the sarracenia purpurea, and its effects in variola, whether modified or pure. Any unprejudiced and candid reader will have readily observed that every sentence which was penned, every expression which was uttered, carried with it the single intention of conveying to the
medical world every appreciable fact which the writer had stored on this novel and highly-important subject. A long interval-nearly a twelvemonth-has elapsed since the original communication introducing the "pitcher-plant" as a medicinal agent in small-pox was read to, and discussed at, the Epidemiological Society; and two months have passed away since the transmission from Canada of my second manuscript on this subject, and its publication in the pages of THE LANCET. It will therefore, I think, be acknowledged on all sides that no eager haste or unseemly precipitancy has been exhibited in this matter; and we may now anticipate that intelligent and impartial practitioners will give an early and ample trial to a remedy which, it is believed, will deprive this loathsome and dangerous disease of nearly all the horrors with which popular
imagination invests it. In furtherance of my desire that the profession should have the earliest information concerning the remedial action of the sarracenia, I beg to place on record a few brief notes of four very interesting cases of variola treated by the root, which. have been kindly forwarded to me by Mr. S. K. Burch, of Shaftesbury-crescent, Pimlico; and shall be very glad if such cases are permitted occasionally to appear in THE LANCET, ’ until such time as in my opinion the effect of this medicine on small-pox is placed fairly and intelligibly before the profession and the world.
(11). Miles, H. Chaulmer. "Cases of small-pox treated by the Sarracenia purpurea." Lancent, December 8, 1862. LINK.
"I beg to place on record a few brief notes of four very interesting cases of variola treated by the root, which. have been kindly forwarded to me by Mr. S. K. Burch, of Shaftesbury-crescent, Pimlico; and shall be very glad if such cases are permitted occasionally to appear in THE LANCET, ’ until such time as in my opinion the effect of this medicine on small-pox is placed fairly and intelligibly before the profession and the world. I make no comment on the cases narrated, while the practice of publishing only " sample cases" is altogether ignored. Mr. Burch mentions that he did not see my paper until ten days after it was published ; but that on the 31st of October he commenced the administration of the sarracenia to Mrs. A., who had several days previously been attacked with "distinct small-pox of very severe type." On the 31st, when the sarracenia was first given, " the pustules on the face were so full that, although distinct, a pin’s point could scarcely be placed between them. The secondary fever was very high." On seeing her the next day (the decoction of the root having been given at the strength recommended, and at the prescribed periods), Mr. Burch found " the change very great : all the fever had left, the pustules on the face were half the size and of a dark-brown colour, and the skin was to be seen between them, while on the legs they were entirely depressed and flattened. Many of them curiously rose again for one day, then flattened and desiccated. On the 4th of November they all dried up and fell off. The patient remarked that she felt better after every dose. The sarracenia did not act as a diuretic after the first day; but the tongue rapidly cleaned. Mrs. A. was delirious the first night she took the decoction, and her husband and nurse had great trouble in keeping her in bed, as she was so anxious to get at the medicine." "There were no marks of pitting in any of the cases now related.
CASE B.- A lady, who lives in the same house as the former patient, took the sarracenia in mild doses as a preventative ; but on the 11th of November the eruption (varioloid) began to appear, though in a very slight form, about thirty or more pustules showing themselves in different parts, except about the lips, where they were confluent, and rapidly becoming purulent ; they desiccated, so that on the 15th she was quite well.
CASE C.- A nurse in the same house also took the decoction as a preventive, and had variola in a still lighter form, and was ill only a few days.
CASE D.- Sent for me on Nov. 14th. The varioloid eruption was beginning to appear about the face, &c. It soon became confluent in many places, but about the body the pustules were distinct. On the 21st, having given the patient no medicine besides the decoction, there were no signs of desiccation or pitting; the pustules were purulent, but not filled out as they usually are on the eighth day; those on the legs were of
a purple colour and small. She has been slightly delirious on several nights, but the fever has not been high. I told her to take the medicine regularly, when she said there was no fear of her not doing so, as she quite longed for the time to take it. On the 22nd the pustules began to dry up, and on the 27th were falling off rapidly; where they have done so there are no signs of pitting." Each of these patients had been vaccinated. About Case A there is an additional circumstance worthy of mention. " The lady was between three and four months advanced in pregnancy. During the two days prior to commencing the sarracenia she hardly felt the child, and thought it dead, and also had a slight bloody discharge. After taking the decoction two days, she felt the child as strong as ever. This lady has been prematurely confined (between six and seven months) on two previous occasions." Mr. Burch concludes by remarking-especially with reference ’to the last case-" Although the sarracenia has not acted quite so rapidly as I expected, still it has succeeded wonderfully, and will be a great boon. I am recommending all my medical friends to try it, and shall be happy to give you any
further information, as I think the employment of the sarracenia purpurea in small-pox cannot be too much known."
(12). Lawrence-Mackey, Ferris, 2018. "Medical Appropriation in the ‘Red’ Atlantic: Translating a Mi’kmaq smallpox cure in the mid-nineteenth century." PhD thesis, University College London. LINK
"Placing the Sarracenia in opposition to vaccination made its dismissal necessary for the medical profession. Dr James Furness Marson was a principal authority on smallpox in Britain, who for forty years was the resident medical officer at the smallpox and vaccination hospital in Holloway, London and principal vaccinator to the National Vaccine Establishment.266 Marson had been given early access to the root for the purposes of officially testing its efficacy on behalf of the profession. In choosing Marson for this task the
establishment recognised his authority in the treatment of smallpox. Marson was an avid supporter of compulsory vaccination which was coming under direct attack from opponents in both the working and middle classes in England during the period.267 The compulsory vaccination act in 1853 decreed all infants born in England and Wales must be vaccinated or their parents could face fines and even jail time. The act was regarded as obstructing liberty and individualism, and as a direct threat to the bodies of children and adults, especially amongst the working class.268 Principle concerns over vaccination rested on the possibility that arm to arm vaccination could transfer other diseases between individuals as well as a fear that matter from cows could cause individuals to suffer bovine illnesses, and that the act of placing animal matter into human bodies was unchristian.269 In 1861 the ability of medical officers and vaccinators to enforce the provisions of the Act were almost non-existent with the strength of opposition only growing. The Sarracenia was therefore framed by those that supported vaccination in opposition to it rather than as a curative to be taken in conjunction with it. If the medical establishment judged the Sarracenia as efficient in curing or preventing smallpox they would only be adding fuel to the anti-vaccination fire, with an approved alternative available that did not come with the same concerns of contamination, unchristian acts and suppression of individual freedom."
(13). Lawrence-Mackey, Ferris, 2018. "Medical Appropriation in the ‘Red’ Atlantic: Translating a Mi’kmaq smallpox cure in the mid-nineteenth century." PhD thesis, University College London. LINK
Marson’s conclusions were published in The British Medical Journal and The Lancet in April 1863 and later, in 1867, in The Transactions of the Epidemiological Society. Having tested the plant in fifteen severe cases, Marson found that the Sarracenia made no difference to the course of the disease. All but two of the test patients died.
(14). Henderson DA, Moss B (1999) . "Smallpox and Vaccinia". In Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA (eds.). Vaccines (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: WB Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-7443-8.
(15). Ardnt, W. et al, 2012. "In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox." LINK
Our data supports that extracts of S. purpurea effectively inhibit the replication of VACV, MPXV and VARV in vitro. This activity toward Orthopoxviruses is consistent with the historical reports of S. purpurea as a therapy against smallpox infections. The goal of this study was to characterize anti-poxvirus activity of S. purpurea extracts in order to verify and evaluate the botanical material under similar preparation methods as that done historically in the 1800's. Collectively, the data suggests that S. purpurea targets early viral transcription leading to an inhibition in viral replication.
(16). Ardnt, W. et al, 2012. "In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox." LINK
"Based on the results presented, future work will involve fractionation and identification of the active anti-poxvirus constituent(s) present in the S. purpurea extracts."
(17). Ardnt, W. et al, 2012. "In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox." LINK
To determine if S. purpurea treatment was effective against other viruses outside the Poxviridae family, we analyzed the ability of S. purpurea to block the replication of four unrelated viruses, including adenovirus (Adeno) (Adenoviridae, DNA genome), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) (Rhabdoviridae, (-) sense RNA genome), mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) (Coronaviridae, (+) sense RNA genome) and reovirus (Reo) (Reoviridae, dsRNA genome). No significant decrease in viral protein synthesis for any of the four viruses tested was detected following treatment with S. purpurea. We also determined that S. purpurea did not affect encephalomyocarditis or VSV plaque formation (data not shown).
(18). Ardnt, W. et al, 2012. "In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox." LINK
For the preparation of S. purpurea extract, fresh whole plants grown in a greenhouse in the Southeastern United States were shipped overnight express and received at the manufacturing facility (Sedona, AZ). The plants were manually cleaned on the same day, with special attention to cleaning the base portion of the plant's pitcher structure so that it was free from contamination with forest detritus. Cleaned whole plant was ground gently in a Hamilton Beach Stainless steel blender in the presence of a blend of 190-proof grain ethanol/distilled water/vegetable glycerin (63%/32%/5%). The plant/liquid mixture was transferred to an amber colored glass container, sealed tightly, and incubated at room temperature for 48 days. The liquid was pressed from the solid plant material, filtered through unbleached paper filters, pooled, and bottled in amber colored glass bottles.
(19). Ardnt, W. et al, 2012. "In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox." LINK
Next we assayed for the ability of VACV to replicate in cells under single-cycle conditions, treated once or every six hours, with S. purpurea extract. Treatment with S. purpurea began immediately following VACV infection and viral titers were determined every six hours. S. purpurea treatment resulted in a dramatic decrease in VACV replication, when compared to the untreated cells (Fig. 1b). A single treatment of S. purpurea, caused a 100–1000 fold reduction in VACV replication throughout the course of the infection, however some viral replication was still observed. In cells treated with fresh extract every six hours, a 10,000-fold decrease in VACV replication was observed. Multiple treatments with S. purpurea completely abolished VACV replication since titers did not increase over the course of the infection. In cells treated with the carrier, VACV replicated to levels similar to that seen in untreated cells (data not shown).
(20). Ardnt, W. et al, 2012. "In Vitro Characterization of a Nineteenth-Century Therapy for Smallpox." LINK
S. purpurea may be inhibiting virus replication early in the replication cycle prior to the induction of CPE. In order to understand the mechanism of antiviral activity associated with S. purpurea, various treatment schedules were tested. In cells treated with a single dose of S. purpurea overnight prior to infection with VACV followed by washing, no inhibition of VACV replication was observed, suggesting the extract does not induce a cellular antiviral component (data not shown). Moreover, treating a purified VACV stock with S. purpurea did not affect replication of the virus, indicating that the extract does not have a direct affect on free virus particles (data not shown).
(21). Wright, C. 2022. "Genus Artemisia Testing Model Proposal using Multiple Linear Regression." LINK
(22). Honda, M. "Carnivorous Plants in the Wilderness." LINK